Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
Basic personal activities, which include bathing, eating, dressing, mobility, transferring from bed to chair, and using the toilet.
Administration on Aging (AoA)
Federal agency that oversees Older American Act programs. Part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Adult Day Services
Programs offering social and recreational activities, supervision, health services, and meals in a single setting to older adults with physical or cognitive disabilities. Typically open weekdays during standard business hours.
Adult Protective Services
Service, which seeks to protect the rights of frail older adults by investigating cases of abuse, neglect, and exploitation as mandated by law. Contact your Local Area Agency on Agin or county department of human services for more information.
Legal document in which people give others instructions about their preferences with regard to health care decisions in case they become incapacitated in some way. Types of advance directives are: living will and durable power of attorney for health care.
Area Agency on Aging (AAA)
Regional organizations, which oversee programs serving elders in Ohio (12 total in the state of Ohio). Provide information and referral services and also typically serve as PASSPORT Administrative Agencies (PAAs) – With the exception of Champaign, Drake, Logan, Preble, Miami, and Shelby counties for whom Catholic Social Services is the PAA.
Residencies which provide a “home with services” and which emphasize residents’ privacy and choice. Residents typically have private locking rooms (shared only by choice) and bathrooms. Personal care services are available on a 24-hour a day basis (Licensed in Ohio as residential care facilities or as rest homes).
Free screening service sponsored by the Ohio Department of Aging that provides consumers with information about their eligibility for public programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. Available online (www.benefitscheckup.org) or through Area Agencies on Aging.
Care Choice Ohio
Free long-term care consultation services provided by Ohio PASSPORT Administrative Agencies. Includes professional assessments of present or future long-term care needs, as well as information about establishing eligibility for government-funded programs.
Offers a single point of entry to the aging services network. Care/case managers assess clients’ needs, create services plans, and coordinate and monitor services; They may operate privately or may be employed by social service agencies or public programs. Typically case managers are nurses or social workers.
(Also called Service Plan or Treatment Plan) Written document which outlines the types and frequency of the long-term care services that a consumer receives. It may include treatment goals for the consumer for a specified time period.
Person who provides support and assistance with various activities to a family member, friend or neighbor. May provide emotional or financial support, as well as hands-on help with different tastsk. Caregiving may also be done from a long distance.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
(Formerly known as HCFA). This federal organization oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Help with chores such as home repairs, yard work, and heavy housecleaning.
Long-term or permanent illness (e.g. diabetes, arthritis) which often results in some type of disability and which may require a person to seek help with various activities.
An organized process for gathering information to determine diagnosis and the types of services and/or medical care needed and to develop recommendations for services. Depending on the reason for assessment, it may include: a medical examination and questions about physical, emotional and mental health, family support system, living situation, and the types of assistance that someone may need. May be conducted at home, in the hospital, in an assessment center or clinic, or in a long-term care facility.
Individual apartments in which residents may receive some services, such as a daily meal with other tenants. (Other services may be includes as well.) Buildings usually have some common area such as a dining room and a lounge as well as additional safety measures such as emergency call buttons. May be rent-subsidized (known as Section 8 housing).
A legal arrangement granted by the court in which a person chooses an individual to make personal decisions on his/her behalf. The person must be mentally competent, but physically unable to manage his/her own affairs. Consult an attorney for more details.
Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC)
(Also called Life Care Community) Communities, which offer multiple levels of care (independent living, assisted living, skilled nursing care) housed in different areas of the same community or campus and which give residents the opportunity to remain in the same community if their needs change. Provide residential services (meals, housekeeping, laundry), social and recreational services, personal care, and nursing care. Require payment of a monthly fee and a possible large lump-sum entrance fee. (Licensed as nursing home/residential care facilities or as homes for the aging.
(Also called co-insurance) The specified portion (dollar amount or percentage) that Medicare, health insurance, or a service program may require a person to pay toward his or her medical bills are services.
Care that does not require specialized training or services.
The initial share of a medical or long-term care expense that consumers must pay before their insurance or the program will cover the expense.
Term, which describes a group of diseases (including Alzheimer’s Disease), which are characterized by memory loss and other declines in mental functioning.
Durable Medical Equipment
(Also called Home Medical Equipment) Equipment such as hospital beds, wheelchairs, and prosthetics used at home. May be covered by Medicaid and in part by Medicare or private insurance.
Durable Power of Attorney
A document, which names a person (called an “Attorney-in-Fact)who will act as someone’s agent and who will make decisions on their behalf, if they are incapacitated. The power of the Attorney-in-Fact can be restricted to specific areas (such as health care) or can cover broad decision-making responsibilities. Consult an attorney for more details.
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care
(Also called Durable Medical Power of Attorney or Health Care Proxy) Document in which someone names another person who will make medical decisions for them in the event that they are not able to make them for themselves. Consult and attorney for more details.
Information and referral services sponsored by the Administration on Again. Call (toll-free) 1-800-677-1116 Monday through Friday from (900 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. E.S.T. to obtain information about services in your community. Also available online (www.eldercare.gov).
Emergency Response Systems
(Also called Lifelines or Personal Emergency Response Systems) A call button – usually worn by the older individual – which can be pushed to get help from family, friends, or emergency assistance in case of emergency. Can be purchased or rented.
Energy Assistance Programs
Include: Ohio Energy Credit Program which offers older consumers a 30 percent credit toward winter utility bills or a one-time payment of winter utility bills. Check wih the Ohio Department of Taxation for more details. Home Energy Assistance Program (HEAP) federal program that offers consumers credit or vouchers to help pay for winter utility bills. Check with your Local Area Agency on Aging for more details.
States are required by law to “recover” funds from certain deceased Medicaid recipients’ estates up to the amount spent by the state for all services, hospital, and prescription costs.
The way traditional Medicare and health insurance work. Medical providers ill for whatever service they provide. Medicare and/or traditional insurance pay their share, the patient pays the balance through co-payments and deductibles
Organization or company in which profits are distributed to shareholders or private owners.
Friendly Visitor/Senior Companions
Programs in which volunteers regularly visit homebound or institutionalized elders to provide socialization, run errands, and generally “check in” with them. Senior Companions receive a modest stipend for their time from the sponsoring agency.
Geriatric Care Manager
Health care professionals (usually social workers or nurses) who have aging-related expertise and are familiar with the services available to assist with care. Fees for these services range from $30 to $150 per hour to conduct assessments, arrange for services and monitor the provisions of those services. Their services can meet a one-time need, or provide ongoing assistance.
Geriatric Assessment Center
organization that uses a variety of health care professionals such as physicians, nurses, social workers, dietitians, physical and occupational therapists, and others to conduct comprehensive assessments and to develop recommendations for care. Usually have a geriatrician on staff, and is often affiliated with a hospital or a university medical school. Has access to a wide variety of health and social services.
Physician who is certified in the care of older people
Legal arrangement in which the court appoints a surrogate decision-maker to act on someone’s behalf because they are declared incompetent. May include guardianship of the person, estate (finances), or both. The guardian may or may not know this person, depending on the situation at the time of the appointment.
Health Care Financing Administration (HFCA)
Former name of the federal organization that oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Now known as the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
Managed care organization that offers a range of health services to its members for a set rate, but which requires its members to use halth care professionals who are part of its network of providers (see also medicare HMOs).
Home Care or Home Care Services
Long-term care services received in a home. For example: homemaker, personal care, home-delivered meals, chore services, or ERS.
Home Health Care
Includes a wide range of health-related services such as assistance with medications, wound care, intravenous (IV) therapy, and help with basic needs such as bathing, dressing, mobility, etc., which are delivered in a person’s home.
Home Sharing / Shared Housing Programs
Usually involve unrelated individuals sharing a home and the shores and expenses included in-home ownership. Those sharing the home typically have their own rooms, but share common areas (such as the kitchen). The home may be owned by the people living there or by a nonprofit organization.
One of the requirements to qualify for Medicare home health care. Means that someone is generally unable to leave the house, and if they do leave home, it is only for a short time (e.g. for a medical appointment) and requires much effort.
Help with meal preparation, shopping, light housekeeping, and laundry.
Services for the terminally ill provided in the home, a hospital, or a long-term care facility. Includes home health services, volunteer support, grief counseling, and pain management.
Independent Living Facility
Rental units in which services are not included as part of rent, although services may be available on site and may be purchased by residents for an additional fee.
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs)
Household/independent living tasks, which include using the telephone, taking medications, money management, housework, meal preparation, laundry, and grocery shopping.
Irrevocable Burial Account
When determining eligibility for Medicaid, the state allows consumers to set aside money in a trust or with a funeral director for burial expenses as part of a pre-paid burial plan. Consult your county department of human services or an attorney for more information.
Level of Care (LOC)
Amount of assistance required by consumers which may determine their eligibility for programs and services. Levels include: protective, intermediate, and skilled.
Home care service programs for older adults that are funded by special property tax levies. Services and fees vary by program. Contact your Local Area Agency on Agency to find out if such a program exists in your county.
A legal arrangement whereby the court appoints a surrogate decision-maker, but limits his/her authority to specific decisions or limits the length of time the guardianship is to be in place.
A trust that is set up while someone (called the Grantor Trustor) is still alive. Assets are transferred to the trust, and the Grantor names a “trustee” who controls the assets in the trust and “beneficiaries” who will inherit the trust after the grantor has died. May be revocable (meaning that the Grantor may change the terms of the trust or take back assets) or irrevocable (meaning that the trust may not be touched by the Grantor). May also be considered when determining the grantor’s eligibility for Medicaid.
A document, which states a person’s preferences for future medical decisions including the withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments such as artificial nutrition and hydration or the use of equipment such as ventilator and respirators (see also Advance Directive).
Long-Term Care (LTC)
Rage of medical and/or social services designed to help people who have disabilities or chronic care needs. Services may be short or long germ and may be provided in a person’s home, in the community, or in residential facilities (e.g. nursing homes or assisted living facilities).
Long-Term Care Insurance
Insurance policies, which pay for long term, care services (such as nursing home and home care) that Medicare and Medigap policies do not cover. Policies vary in terms of what they will cover, and may be expensive. Coverage may be denied based on health status or age.
Method of organizing and financing health care services which emphasizes cost-effectiveness and coordination of care. Managed care organizations (including HMOs, PPOs, and PSOs) receive a fixed amount of money per month (called a capitation), no matter how much care a member needs during that month.
Federal and state-funded program of medical assistance to low-income individuals of all ages. There are income eligibility requirements for Medicaid. Check with your local PASSPORT Administrative Agency or county department of human services for more information.
Federal health insurance program for persons age 65 and over (and certain disabled persons under age 65). Consists of 2 parts: Part A (hospital insurance) and Part B (optional medical insurance which covers physicians’ services and outpatient care in part and which requires beneficiaries to pay a monthly premium).
Option under Medicare, which gives consumers a choice of plans including managed care and fee-for-service, HMOs, HMOs with POS, PPOs, PSOs, private fee-for-service, religious/fraternal benefit society plans, and medical savings accounts. Current Medicare beneficiaries are not required to change plans unless they so desire.
Under Medicare HMOs (Health Maintenance Organizations), members pay their regular monthly premiums to Medicare, and Medicare pays the HMO a fixed sum of money each month to provide Medicare benefits (e.g. hospitalization, doctor’s visits and more). Medicare HMOs may provide extra benefits over and above regular and Medicare benefits (such as prescription drug coverage, eyeglasses, and more). Members do not pay Medicare deductibles and co-payments; However the HMO may require them to pay an additional monthly premium and co-payments for some services. If members use providers outside the HMO’s network, they pay the entire bill themselves unless the plan has a point of services option.
Medicare HMOs with Point of Service (POS)
Operates similarly to a regular Medicare HMO except that the plan covers part of the expense if members use providers from outside the network.
Medicare Select (also called MedSelect)
A type of supplemental insurance plan (Medigap/Medisup) that combines managed care with a standard Medigap plan. Plans may require members to use the doctors and hospitals within its network, but premiums are likely to be lower than regular Medigap/Medisup plans.
Insurance supplement to Medicare that is designed to fill in the “Gaps” left by Medicare (such as co-payments). May pay for some limited long-term care expenses, depending on the benefits package purchased.
Mental Health Services
Variety of services provided to people of all ages, including counseling, psychotherapy, psychiatric services, crisis intervention, and support groups. Issues addressed include depression, grief, anxiety, stress, as well as severe mental illnesses.
Facilities licensed by the state to offer residents personal care as well as skilled nursing care on a 24 hour a day basis. Provide nursing care, personal care, room and board, supervision, medication, therapies and rehabilitation. Rooms are often shared, and communal dining is common. (Licensed as nursing homes, county homes, or nursing homes/residential care facilities).
Include the following: Home delivered meals (also called Meals-On-Wheels) – Hot, nutritious meals delivered to homebound older people on weekdays. Can accommodate special diets. Congregate meals – hot, nutritious lunches served to older adults in group settings such as churches or synagogues, senior centers, schools, etc. Donations are requested, although not required.
Designed to help patients improve their independence with activities of daily living through rehabilitation, exercises, and the use of assistive devices. May be covered in part by Medicare.
Ohio Department of Aging (ODA)
State agency that oversees aging services programs (including PASSPORT and RSS) within the state of Ohio.
Ohio Department of Health (ODH)
State agency whose responsibilities include inspecting and licensing all long-term care facilities within the state of Ohio.
Ohio Department of Human Services (ODHS)
Replaced by the Department of Job and Family Services
Ohio Senior Health Insurance Information Program (OSHIIP)
Program sponsored by the Ohio Department of Insurance which provides free information and advice about health insurance, including Medicare, Medicaid, Medigap, long-term care and other health insurance. Check the phone book for the OSHIIP center in your area, or call (toll free): 1-800-686-1578 Monday-Friday, 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Ohio Department of Job & Family Services (ODJFS)
State agency that oversees programs that provide health care, employment and economic assistance, child support, and services to families and children.
Older Americans Act
Federal legislation that specifically addresses the needs of older adults in the United States. Provides some funding for aging services (such as home-delivered meals, congregate meals, senior center, employment programs). Creates the structure of federal, state and local agencies that oversee aging services programs (see also Title III services).
Trained professional or volunteer who advocates for the rights of older people receiving long-term care services (both facility-based care and home-care) and who investigates their problems with or concerns about their care.
Ohio’s home and community based long-term care service program for low income persons 60 and over. (PASSPORT stands for Pre-Admission Screening and Services Providing Options and Resources Today.)
PASSPORT Administrative Agencies (PAAs)
Organizations that handle the eligibility determination, assessment, and case management for the PASSPORT program. Generally housed at area agencies on aging in Ohio. The exception to this is Catholic Social Services in Sidney that serves as the PAA for Champaign, Darke, Logan, Preble, Miami, and Shelby counties.
Personal Care (also called Custodial Care)
Assistance with activities of daily living as well as with self administration of medications and preparing special diets.
Designed to restore/improve movement and strength in people whose mobility has been impaired by injury or disease. May include exercise, massage, water therapy, and assistive devices. May be covered in part by Medicare.
Planning and Service Areas (PSAs)
Multi-county regions of the state whose aging services are coordinated by Area Agencies on Aging.
Point of Service (POS)
A health maintenance organization (HMO) with this option will cover part of the expense if a member decides to use a provider outside the plan’s network.
Required of all people living independently in the community who wish to enter a nursing home. ensures that community and home-based long-term care options are presented to all oder people who are able to take advantage of them.
Older Ohioans requesting admission to a Medicaid-certified nursing facility must receive approval from their PASSPORT Administrative Agency before they may be admitted. This approval (the Pre-admission screen) is a federal requirement to ensure that nursing home residents who need mental health services or specialized services for the mentally retarded or developmentally disabled are identified at admission.
Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)
Managed care organization that operates in a similar manner to an HMO or Medicare HMO except that this type of plan has a larger provider network and does not require members to receive approval from their primary care physician before seeing a specialist. It is also possible to use doctors outside the network, although there may be a higher co-payment.
Individual or organization that provides health care or long-term care services (e.g. doctors, hospital, physical therapists, home health aides, and much more).
Provider Sponsored Organization (PSO)
Managed care organization that is similar to an HMO or Medicare HMO except that the organization is owned by the providers in that plan and these providers share the financial risk assumed by the organization.
Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB)
Individual enrolled in a Medicaid Program, which pays for Medicare consumer cost-share expenses (deductibles, co-payments, and Part B premiums) for low-income elders and persons with disabilities who qualify for Medicare Part A. There are income eligibility requirements for this program. Contact your local PASSPORT Administrative Agency or county department of human services for more information.
Qualifying Individual (QI)
Individual enrolled in a Medicaid program, which pays for all or part of Medicare Part B monthly premiums for low-income elders and persons with disabilities who qualify for Medicare Part A. There are income eligibility requirements for this program. Contact your local PASSPORT Administrative Agency or county department of human services for more information.
Services designed to improve/restore a person’s functioning; includes physical therapy, occupational therapy, and/or speech therapy. May be provided at home or in long-term care facilities. May be covered in part by Medicare.
Residential State Supplement (RSS)
State-funded program which gives cash assistance to older persons and to blind and disabled persons of all ages who are Supplemental Security Income (S.S.I.) recipients and who do not medically qualify for nursing home placement, but who live in other approved group living settings such as board and care homes and adult foster homes. There is an income eligibility requirement for receiving RSS. Contact your local PASSPORT Administrative Agency or county department of human services for more information.
Service in which trained professionals or volunteers com into the home to provide short-term care (from a few hours to a few days) for an older person to allow caregivers some time away from their caregiving role.
Provides a variety of onsite programs for older adults including recreation, socialization, congregate meals, and some health services. Usually a good source of information about area programs and services.
“Higher Level” of care (such as injections, catheterizations, and dressing changes) provided by trained medical professionals, including nurses, doctors, and physical therapists.
Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF)
Facility that is certified by Medicare to provide 24-hour nursing care and rehabilitation services in addition to other medical services. (See also nursing home).
Special Care Units
Long-term care facility units with services specifically for persons with Alzheimer’s Disease, dementia, head injuries, or other disorders.
Specified Low Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB)
Individual enrolled in a Medicaid program which pays for Medicare Part B monthly premiums for low-income elders and persons with disabilities who qualify for Medicare Part A. There are income eligibility requirements for this program. Contact your local PASSPORT Administrative Agency or county department of human services for more information.
Designed to help restore speech through exercises. May be covered by Medicare.
Medicaid financial eligibility requirements are strict, and may require beneficiaries to spend down/use up assets or income until they reach the eligibility level. Contact your local PASSPORT Administrative Agency or county department of human services for more information.
Federal regulations preserve some income and assets for the spouse of a nursing home resident whose stay is covered by Medicaid. Contact your local PASSPORT Administrative Agency or county department of human services for more information.
Subacute Care (also called Transitional Care)
Type of short-term care provided by man long-term care facilities and hospitals which may include rehabilitation services, specialized care for certain conditions (such as stroke and diabetes) and/or post-surgical care and other services associated with the transition between the hospital and home. Residents on these units often have been hospitalized recently and typically have more complicated medical needs. The goal of subacute care is to discharge residents to their homes or to a lower level of care.
Groups of people who share a common bond (e.g. caregivers) who come together on a regular basis to share problems and experiences. May be sponsored by Social Service Agencies, senior centers, religious organizations, as well as organizations such as the Alzheimer’s Association.
Program in which volunteers or paid staff call homebound elders on a regular basis to provide contact, support, and companionship.
Title III Services
Services provided to individuals age 60 and older which are funded under Title III of the Older Americans Act. Include: congregate and home-delivered meals, supportive services (e.g. transportation, information and referral, legal assistance, and more), in-home services (e.g. homemaker services, personal care, chore services, and more), and health promotion/disease prevention services (e.g. health screenings, exercise programs, and more). Contact your local area agency on aging to see what services may be available in your area. (see also Older Americans Act).
Title XX Services (also called Social Services Block Grant Services)
Grants given to states under the Social Security Act, which fund limited amounts of social services for people of all ages (including some in-home services, abuse prevention services, and more). Contact your local area agency on agency or county department of human services to find out what services may be available in your area.
Transportation Services (also called Escort Services)
Provides transportation for older adults to services and appointments. May use bus, taxi, volunteer drivers, or van services that can accommodate wheelchairs and persons with other special needs.
Veterans Affairs (V.A.)
Offers acute and long-term care benefits (nursing home care and home care) benefits to veterans of the United States Armed Forces, and in some cases, their families. Services are provided by V.A. medical centers around the country. Contact your local or state V.A. for more information.